Recognizing Different Kinds of Emergencies

There are many different types of emergencies all ranging from what kind to how severe to how minor to a deep laceration. If a victim gets the proper care, it will reduce the complications and/or infections that can happen with an emergency.

Guidelines for minor cuts, scrapes, and wounds:

  • Stop the bleeding – if minor cuts or scrapes do not stop, apply pressure with a clean cloth and bandage. Seek medical assistance if it doesn’t stop with pressure.
  • Clean the wound – rinse with clean water and do not use soap in the wound. It is okay to use soap on the skin around the wound.
  • Apply an antibiotic – after rinsing, apply cream or ointment to discourage infection.
  • Cover the wound with a clean bandage.
  • If there is severe bleeding, apply pressure, and call 911.


Internal Bleeding

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Internal bleeding can be from a blow from equipment that weighs too much to a fall from a tree to the ground. It will look like a bruise (as you can see from the photo – on his side) and can be life-threatening. Call 911 immediately. Symptoms of internal bleeding include:

  • Bleeding from the ears, nose, butt, and/or private areas
  • Vomit or coughing up blood
  • Blood in urine, feces, or vomit
  • Bruise on the neck, chest, hip, stomach, side between ribs, or abdominal.
  • Abdominal tenderness and/or swelling
  • Fractures
  • Shock – individual could be weak, have anxiety, extremely thirsty
  • victim’s skin is cool to touch




Shock can kill. Shock happens when the body’s important functions are threatened by not getting enough blood or fluids. Symptoms are to include:

  • The inability to feel pain despite injury
  • Pale/Bluish skin and cool to touch
  • Vomit
  • Dull or sunken eyes
  • Unusual thirst

Shock requires medical attention. Some guidelines to follow when encountering a victim with shock:

  • Maintain an open airway
  • Control any bleeds
  • Elevate legs 12″ unless the injury involves injury to his/her head, neck, or spine than do not move the victim
  • Cover the victim with a blanket
  • Do not offer the victim any food or drink
  • If the victim is unconscious or bleeding from his/her mouth, the victim should lay on his/her side
  • Stay with the victim until help arrives




If you encounter someone or if you experience a nosebleed yourself, they are very common, sit upright. Pinch the nose for 5-10 minutes. Once the bleeding stops, do not pick or blow your nose for several hours. If bleeding occurs within the last 20 minutes of it stopping, call your doctor.


Head/Spine Injury


Whenever you suspect a victim with a head/spine injury do not move the victim. Call 911 immediately! Guidelines for a head/spine injury victim:

  • Put heavy towel around your neck and head.
  • Use CPR if need to, but do not tilt the victim’s head to open the airway
  • Use at least 2 or more bystanders to roll the victim on his/her side if the victim is choking to reduce injury


Sprains and Strains

With Sprains and Strains, it is important to follow the following guidelines: (RICE)

  • Rest 
  • Ice
  • Compress
  • Elevate

Take Tylenol/Motrin to reduce the swelling.




When a victim hears a pop, snap, or has a broken bone sticking out of their body with either severe pain and/or swelling, a bruise, or some other form of deformity these are the same as having a major injury trauma. Call 911 immediately.




There are 4 kinds of burns: electrical, thermal, chemical, and contact/radiation. Thermal, Contact, and/or Chemical burns – have the victim run his/her burn area over the burn for 30 minutes. Do not offer the victim any food or drink. Flushing the burn area has more priority before calling 911. Remove all the clothing around the burn area so that the clothing does not stick. Do not cover the burn without a clean, cotton material. Do not use soap. No ointment. No home remedies. Keep covered with a blanket. Electrical burns – do not touch the victim until the power is off. Once the power source is off, check the airway of the victim, check their breath, check their circulation, and administer CPR if it is needed. Call 911.